[They] "transport beaver hides, the pelts of the black fox and swords from the farthest reaches of the Saqaliba to the Sea of Rum [i.e., the Black Sea]. The ruler of Rum [i.e., the Byzantine Empire] takes a tithe of them. If they wish, they go to the Tnys river [i.e., "Tanais", the Greek name of the Don River], Yitil [i.e., Itil, the ancient name of the Volga], or Tin [variously identified as Don or Seversky Donets], the River of the Saqaliba. They travel to Khamlij, the city of the Khazars whose ruler takes a tithe of them. Then they betake themselves to the Sea of Jurjan [Caspian Sea] and they alight on whichever of its shores they wish. ... Sometimes, they carry their goods from Jurjan by camel to Baghdad. Saqlab slaves translate for them. They claim that they are Christians and pay the jizya."

885-886, Ibn Khordadbeh writing about the Rus merchants who brought goods from Northern Europe and Northwestern Russia to Baghdad

Moderator: ghill


Postby ghill » Wed Dec 06, 2017 4:32 pm

You can just google a timeline for Russia in the 10th Century so I have no issues with players reading this, but (historical) spoilers. You have been warned.

902 AD Varangian Rus mentioned serving in Byzantine naval expedition to Crete. Rus also serve Khazars as mercenaries. [Jelisavcic]

904-7 AD Chronicle reports Oleg campaign from Kyiv against Byzantium -draws troops from as far as Chud tribes - result in a new peace treaty, but this is not in Byzantine sources. [Jelisavcic]

909 AD With Varyag allies the Rus druzhina captures Khazar fort Abezgun on the Caspian. [Jelisavcic]

911-912 AD Second Treaty between Oleg, (Kyiv Rus) and Byzantium. Text included in Russian chronicle. [Jelisavcic]

913 AD Prince Igor campaign via Crimea and Tmutorakhan to Caspian. [Jelisavcic]
913 ADS The Rus plundered the Arabs in the Caspian Sea during the Caspian expeditions. [Wikipedia]

914 AD Prince Igor campaign across Caucasus, victorious Rus troops ambushed by Khazars on a return trip. [Jelisavcic]

915 AD Pecheneg appear before Kyiv for the first time in force. Prince Igor signs a peace treaty with them establishing a frontier between the Don and Dniester. [Jelisavcic]

920 AD War between Pecheneg and Igor of Kyiv. [Jelisavcic]

935-41 AD Igor (Ingvar) unsuccessful Kyivan Rus naval campaign against Byzantium, defeated by naval use of "Greek fire". Possibly instigated by Khazars. [Jelisavcic]

AD 941 Igor besieges Constantinople, in 941 his fleet is destroyed by Greek fire.

943 AD Kyivan Rus campaign of Igor Rurikovich against Khazars via Sudak and Tmutorakhan across Caucasus, initially successful, but later defeated. [Jelisavcic]

944 AD the Rus plundered the Arabs in the Caspian Sea during the Caspian expeditions. [Wikipedia]

944 AD Igor besieges Constantinople again concludes with the Emperor a favourable treaty whose text is preserved in the chronicle. [Wikipedia]

944-45 AD Chronicle notes - Igor campaigns to the Danube, he first signs an alliance with Pecheneg, threatens war against Byzantium. Subsequent treaty with Byzantine empire includes conditions on Crimea prohibits Rus attack on Chersonesus -Rus want Byzantine silk, Rus trade with Pecheneg important. Treaty lists many Scandinavian names in the delegation. But campaign may be a myth. [Jelisavcic]

945 AD Control of Crimea disputed between Svyatoslav and Khazars - Prince Svyatoslav attacks Chersonesus. [Jelisavcic]

945 AD Igor is assassinated and is succeeded by his widow Olga

946 AD Renewal of peace treaty between Rus and Byzantine Empire. [Jelisavcic]

947 AD Olga establishes trading posts and collects tribute as far as Novgorod and Msta and Luga rivers. [Jelisavcic]

950 AD Constantine Porphyrogenitus writes that Patzinaks occupy Russia and Crimea - Patzinaks replace Khazars in north Crimea steppe, Byzantines regain power over Goths at Doros (Mangup-kale). [Jelisavcic]

962 AD Olga is succeeded by her son Svyatoslav becomes ruler of Kiev

964 AD Svyatoslav launches a military campaign against the Eastern tribes, conquering the Volga Bulgars

968 AD Khazars are defeated at Sarkel by Svyatoslav of Kiev and the Khazar empire is destroyed, leaving Kiev with the entire Volga-Caspian trade route

969 AD Svyatoslav puts his son Vladimir in charge of Novgorod

971 AD Svyatoslav of Kiev signs a treaty with Byzantium surrendering the Balkans and Crimea

972 AD Svyatoslav dies and his sons start a civil war

980 AD Vladimir of Novgorod conquers Kiev and creates a unified Rus with capital in Kiev, and launches a campaign to conquer the Baltic people

988 AD Vladimir, now the Rus ruler of Kiev-Novgorod, a kingdom that extends from Ukraine to the Baltic Sea (the largest European state), marries the sister-in-law of the Byzantine emperor Basil II, converts his people to Christianity (the Greek-Orthodox brand of Christianity) and builds the first church (Church Of the Holy Virgin), while the Patriarch of Byzantium appoints a primate of Russia who is a Greek
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